2.2: Hybrid orbitals (2023)

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    Skills to Develop

    • Describe the hybrid orbitals used in the formation of bonding for each atom in some carbon containing compounds.

    sp3 Hybrid orbitals and tetrahedral bonding

    Now let’s look more carefully at bonding in organic molecules, starting with methane, CH4. Recall the valence electron configuration of a carbon atom:

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (1)

    This picture is problematic when it comes to describing the bonding in methane. How does the carbon form four bonds if it has only two half-filled p orbitals available for bonding? A hint comes from the experimental observation that the four C-H bonds in methane are arranged with tetrahedral geometry about the central carbon, and that each bond has the same length and strength. In order to explain this observation, valence bond theory relies on a concept called orbital hybridization. In this picture, the four valence orbitals of the carbon (one 2s and three 2p orbitals) combine mathematically (remember: orbitals are described by wave equations) to form four equivalent hybrid orbitals, which are called sp3 orbitals because they are formed from mixing one s and three p orbitals. In the new electron configuration, each of the four valence electrons on the carbon occupies a single sp3 orbital.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (2) Click to see an interactive 3D model

    (select ‘load sp3‘ and ‘load H 1s’ to see orbitals).

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (3)

    This geometric arrangement makes perfect sense if you consider that it is precisely this angle that allows the four orbitals (and the electrons in them) to be as far apart from each other as possible. This is simply a restatement of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory that you learned in General Chemistry: electron pairs (in orbitals) will arrange themselves in such a way as to remain as far apart as possible, due to negative-negative electrostatic repulsion.

    Each C-H bond in methane, then, can be described as a sigma bond formed by overlap between a half-filled 1s orbital in a hydrogen atom and the larger lobe of one of the four half-filled sp3 hybrid orbitals in the central carbon. The length of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in methane is 109 pm.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (4)

    While previously we drew a Lewis structure of methane in two dimensions using lines to denote each covalent bond, we can now draw a more accurate structure in three dimensions, showing the tetrahedral bonding geometry. To do this on a two-dimensional page, though, we need to introduce a new drawing convention: the solid / dashed wedge system. In this convention, a solid wedge simply represents a bond that is meant to be pictured emerging from the plane of the page. A dashed wedge represents a bond that is meant to be pictured pointing into, or behind, the plane of the page. Normal lines imply bonds that lie in the plane of the page. This system takes a little bit of getting used to, but with practice your eye will learn to immediately ‘see’ the third dimension being depicted.


    Imagine that you could distinguish between the four hydrogen atoms in a methane molecule, and labeled them Ha through Hd. In the images below, the exact same methane molecule is rotated and flipped in various positions. Draw the missing hydrogen atom labels. (It will be much easier to do this if you make a model.)

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (5)[reveal-answer q=”129643″]Show Solution[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”129643″]

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (6)



    What kind of orbitals overlap to form the C-Cl bonds in chloroform, CHCl3?
    [reveal-answer q=”204888″]Show Solution[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”204888″]

    (Video) 2.2 Atomic orbitals (SL)

    sp3 orbital on carbon overlapping with an sp3 orbital on chlorine.[/hidden-answer]

    Diamond is a crystal form of elemental carbon, and the structure is particularly interesting. In the crystal, every carbon atom is bonded to four other carbon atoms, and the bonds are arranged in a tetrahedral fashion. The bonding, no doubt, is due to the sp3 hybrid orbitals. The bond length of 154 pm is the same as the C-C bond length in ethane, propane and other alkanes.

    An idealized single crystal of diamond is a gigantic molecule, because all the atoms are inter-bonded. The bonding has given diamond some very unusual properties. It is the hardest stone, much harder than anything else in the material world. It is a poor conductor, because all electrons are localized in the chemical bonds. However, diamond is an excellent heat conductor. A stone made of pure carbon is colorless, but the presence of impurities gives it various colors. The index of refraction is very high, and their glitter (sparkle or splendor) has made them the most precious stones.

    How does this bonding picture extend to compounds containing carbon-carbon bonds? In ethane (CH3CH3), both carbons are sp3-hybridized, meaning that both have four bonds with tetrahedral geometry. The carbon-carbon bond, with a bond length of 154 pm, is formed by overlap of one sp3 orbital from each of the carbons, while the six carbon-hydrogen bonds are formed from overlaps between the remaining sp3 orbitals on the two carbons and the 1s orbitals of hydrogen atoms. All of these are sigma bonds.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (7)

    Because they are formed from the end-on-end overlap of two orbitals, sigma bonds are free to rotate. This means, in the case of ethane molecule, that the two methyl (CH3) groups can be pictured as two wheels on an axle, each one able to rotate with respect to the other.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (8)

    In chapter 3 we will learn more about the implications of rotational freedom in sigma bonds, when we discuss the ‘conformation’ of organic molecules.

    The sp3 bonding picture is also used to described the bonding in amines, including ammonia, the simplest amine. Just like the carbon atom in methane, the central nitrogen in ammonia is sp3hybridized. With nitrogen, however, there are five rather than four valence electrons to account for, meaning that three of the four hybrid orbitals are half-filled and available for bonding, while the fourth is fully occupied by a nonbonding pair (lone pair) of electrons.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (9)

    The bonding arrangement here is also tetrahedral: the three N-H bonds of ammonia can be pictured as forming the base of a trigonal pyramid, with the fourth orbital, containing the lone pair, forming the top of the pyramid. Recall from your study of VSEPR theory in General Chemistry that the lone pair, with its slightly greater repulsive effect, ‘pushes’ the three N-H s bonds away from the top of the pyramid, meaning that the H-N-H bond angles are slightly less than tetrahedral, at 107.3˚ rather than 109.5˚.

    VSEPR theory also predicts, accurately, that a water molecule is ‘bent’ at an angle of approximately 104.5˚. The bonding in water results from overlap of two of the four sp3 hybrid orbitals on oxygen with 1s orbitals on the two hydrogen atoms. The two nonbonding electron pairs on oxygen are located in the two remaining sp3orbitals.


    Draw, in the same style as the figures above, orbital pictures for the bonding in a) methylamine (H3CNH2), and b) ethanol (H3C-CH2-OH.
    [reveal-answer q=”686129″]Show Solution[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”686129″]

    Both the carbon and the nitrogen atom in CH3NH2 are sp3-hybridized. The C-N sigma bond is an overlap between two sp3 orbitals.

    Both the carbon and the nitrogen atom in CH3NH2aresp3-hybridized. The C-Nsigmabond is an overlap between twosp3orbitals.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (11)[/hidden-answer]

    See a video tutorial on sp3 orbitals and sigma bonds (Note: This is the video linked to in the previous section)

    sp2 and sp hybrid orbitals and pi bonds

    The valence bond theory, along with the hybrid orbital concept, does a very good job of describing double-bonded compounds such as ethene.Three experimentally observable characteristics of the ethene molecule need to be accounted for by a bonding model:

    1. Ethene is a planar (flat) molecule.
    2. Bond angles in ethene are approximately 120o, and the carbon-carbon bond length is 134 pm, significantly shorter than the 154 pm single carbon-carbon bond in ethane.
    3. There is a significant barrier to rotation about the carbon-carbon double bond.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (12)

    Clearly, these characteristics are not consistent with an sp3 hybrid bonding picture for the two carbon atoms.Instead, the bonding in ethene is described by a model involving the participation of a different kind of hybrid orbital.Three atomic orbitals on each carbon – the 2s, 2px and 2py orbitals – combine to form three sp2 hybrids, leaving the 2pz orbital unhybridized.

    (Video) Sigma and Pi Bonds: Hybridization Explained!

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (13)

    The three sp2 hybrids are arranged with trigonal planar geometry, pointing to the three corners of an equilateral triangle, with angles of 120° between them.The unhybridized 2pz orbital is perpendicular to this plane (in the next several figures, sp2 orbitals and the sigma bonds to which they contribute are represented by lines and wedges; only the 2pz orbitals are shown in the ‘space-filling’ mode).

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (14)

    The carbon-carbon double bond in ethene consists of one sigma bond, formed by the overlap of two sp2 orbitals, and a second bond, called a pibond, which is formed by the side-by-side overlap of the two unhybridized 2pz orbitals from each carbon.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (15)

    animation spacefilling image video tutorial

    interactive 3D model
    (select ‘show resulting pi orbital’)

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (16) 2.2: Hybrid orbitals (17)

    This illustration (from University of Florida) shows the sigma and pi bonds in ethene.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (18)

    Unlike a sigma bond, a pi bond does not have cylindrical symmetry. If rotation about this bond were to occur, it would involve disrupting the side-by-side overlap between the two 2pz orbitals that make up the pi bond. The presence of the pi bond thus ‘locks’ the six atoms of ethene into the same plane. This argument extends to larger alkene groups: in each case, six atoms lie in the same plane.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (19)


    Redraw the structures below, indicating the six atoms that lie in the same plane due to the carbon-carbon double bond.
    [reveal-answer q=”15124″]Show Solution[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”15124″]

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (20)



    What is wrong with the way the following structure is drawn?

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (21)

    [reveal-answer q=”437064″]Show Answer[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”437064″]

    The carbon atoms in an aromatic ring are sp2 hybridized, thus bonding geometry is trigonal planar: in other words, the bonds coming out of the ring are in the same plane as the ring, not pointing above the plane of the ring as the wedges in the incorrect drawing indicate. A correct drawing should use lines to indicate that the bonds are in the same plane as the ring:2.2: Hybrid orbitals (22)


    A similar picture can be drawn for the bonding in carbonyl groups, such as formaldehyde.In this molecule, the carbon is sp2-hybridized, and we will assume that the oxygen atom is also sp2hybridized.The carbon has three sigma bonds: two are formed by overlap between sp2 orbitals with 1s orbitals from hydrogen atoms, and the third sigma bond is formed by overlap between the remaining carbon sp2 orbital and an sp2 orbital on the oxygen.The two lone pairs on oxygen occupy its other two sp2 orbitals.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (23)

    interactive 3D model

    (Video) sp3 hybridized orbitals and sigma bonds | Structure and bonding | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy

    The pi bond is formed by side-by-side overlap of the unhybridized 2pz orbitals on the carbon and the oxygen. Just like in alkenes, the 2pz orbitals that form the pi bond are perpendicular to the plane formed by the sigma bonds.


    a: Draw a diagram of hybrid orbitals in an sp2-hybridized nitrogen.

    b: Draw a figure showing the bonding picture for the imine below.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (24)

    c: In your drawing for part b, what kind of orbital holds the nitrogen lone pair?
    [reveal-answer q=”990885″]Show Answer[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”990885″]

    a) The carbon and nitrogen atoms are bothsp2hybridized. The carbon-nitrogen double bond is composed of asigmabond formed from twosp2orbitals, and apibond formed from the side-by-side overlap of two unhybridized2porbitals.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (25)

    b) As shown in the figure above, the nitrogen lone pair electrons occupy one of the threesp2hybrid orbitals.[/hidden-answer]

    Bonding carbon atoms using sp hybrid orbitals

    Consider, for example, the structure of ethyne (common name acetylene), the simplest alkyne.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (26)

    Both the VSEPR theory and experimental evidence tells us that the molecule is linear: all four atoms lie in a straight line.The carbon-carbon triple bond is only 120 pm long, shorter than the double bond in ethene, and is very strong, about 837 kJ/mol.In the hybrid orbital picture of acetylene, both carbons are sp-hybridized. In an sp-hybridized carbon, the 2s orbital combines with the 2px orbital to form two sp hybrid orbitals that are oriented at an angle of 180° with respect to each other (eg. along the x axis).The 2py and 2pz orbitals remain unhybridized, and are oriented perpendicularly along the y and z axes, respectively.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (27)

    The carbon-carbon sigma bond, then, is formed by the overlap of one sp orbital from each of the carbons, while the two carbon-hydrogen sigma bonds are formed by the overlap of the second sp orbital on each carbon with a 1s orbital on a hydrogen.Each carbon atom still has two half-filled 2py and 2pz orbitals, which are perpendicular both to each other and to the line formed by the sigma bonds.These two perpendicular pairs of p orbitals form two pi bonds between the carbons, resulting in a triple bond overall (one sigma bond plus two pi bonds).

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (28)

    When sp hybrid orbitals are used for the sigma bond, the two sigma bonds around the carbon are linear. Two other p orbitals are available for pi bonding, and a typical compound is the acetylene or ethyne HC≡CH. The three sigma and two pi bonds of this molecule can be seen in this diagram from University of Florida: General chemistry shown below.

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (29)

    Note that molecules H-C≡C-H, H-C≡N, and ¯C≡O+ have the same number of electrons. Bonding in these molecules can be explained by the same theory, and thus their formation is no surprise.

    interactive 3D model

    Comparison of Structural Features

    Some typical bonding features of ethane, ethene, and ethyne are summarized in the table below:

    Ethane Ethene Ethyne
    Hybrid orbitals
    of $$\ce{C}$$
    sp3 sp2 sp
    H H
    \ /
    / \
    H H
    H H
    \ /
    / \
    H H
    Bondlength pm
    154 134 120
    Bondlength pm
    112 110 106
    bond angle °
    111 121 180
    $$\ce{C-C}$$ bond
    energy kJ/mol
    368 611 820
    $$\ce{C-H}$$ bond
    energy kJ/mol
    410 451 536

    As the bond order between carbon atoms increases from 1 to 3 for ethane, ethene, and ethyne, the bond lengths decrease, and the bond energy increases. Note that the bond energies given here are specific for these compounds, and the values may be different from the average values for this type of bonds.

    (Video) A Level Chemistry Revision "Atomic Orbitals"

    Confidence building questions

    1. What hybrid orbitals are used by the carbon atoms in HC≡CH? Discussion –
      Linear -C- bonds due to sp hybridized orbitals. This molecule is linear, and it consists of 3 sigma, σ, bonds, and two pi, π, bonds. Compare the bonding of this with ¯C≡O+, H-C≡N, and CH3-C≡N.
    2. What hybrid orbitals are used by the carbon atoms in H2C=CH2? Discussion –
      Planar -C< σ bonds due to sp2 hybridized orbitals. Another p orbital is used for the pi, π. How many sigma and pi bonds does this molecule have? Do all atoms in this molecule lie on the same plane?
    3. What hybrid orbitals are used by thecarbon in CH3CH3? Discussion –
      Tetrahedral arrangement around C is due to sp3 hybridized orbitals.
    4. What hybrid orbitals are used by the oxygen in CH3CH2OH? Discussion –
      Tetrahedral arrangement around O is due to sp3 hybridized orbitals.
    5. Which carbon to carbon bond length is the shortest in the following molecule: CH3-C≡C-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-OH? Discussion –
      The bond length decreases as the bond order increases, so the triple bond is the shortest.
    6. How many carbon atoms make use of sp2 hybrid orbitals in this molecule: CH3-C≡C-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-COOH? Discussion –
      Recognize that the type of bonding is important. For more guidance, see the next section in this book.
    7. The molecular formula of caffeine is C8H10N4O2; draw a reasonable structure for it. Discussion –
      The structure is shown below. Can you sketch a bonding structure for caffeine? How many carbon atoms makes use of sp2 hybrid orbitals?

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (30)


    a) What kinds of orbitals are overlapping in bonds b-i indicated below? Be sure to distinguish between s and p bonds. An example is provided for bond ‘a’.

    b) In what kind of orbital is the lone pair of electrons located on the nitrogen atom of bond a? Of bond e?

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (31)

    [reveal-answer q=”879188″]Show Solution[/reveal-answer]
    [hidden-answer a=”879188″]

    a) bond b: Nsp2-Csp3 (this means an overlap of an sp2 orbital on N and an sp3 orbital on C)

    bond c: Csp2-Csp2 plus C2p-C2p (pi)

    bond d: Csp2-Csp3

    bond e: Csp3-Csp3

    bond f: Csp3-Csp3

    bond g: Csp2-Csp2 (s) plus C2p-C2p (pi)

    bond h: Csp2-H1s

    bond i: Csp2-Csp2

    b) bond a: lone pair on N occupies an sp2 orbital

    bond e: lone pair on N occupies an sp3 orbital[/hidden-answer]

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (32)

    A YouTube element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here: http://pb.libretexts.org/ochem1walker/?p=43

    2.2: Hybrid orbitals (33)

    CC licensed content, Shared previously

    (Video) 2.2 Energy Levels and the Number of Orbitals [SL IB Chemistry]


    What is 2s 2p hybridization? ›

    sp2 hybridization can explain the trigonal planar structure of molecules. In it, the 2s orbitals and two of the 2p orbitals hybridize to form three sp orbitals, each consisting of 67% p and 33% s character.

    What is the hybrid orbitals of bf2? ›

    In BeF2, Be atom is sp hybridised i.e. two hybrid orbitals are directed along a straight line with a bond angle equal to 180°. Each sp hybrid orbital overlaps axially with 2p half-filled orbital of F atom to form sigma Be – F bonds.

    What are 2 sp2 hybrid orbitals? ›

    sp2 Hybridization
    • sp2 hybridization is also called trigonal hybridization.
    • It involves mixing of one 's' orbital and two 'p' orbital's of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp2.
    • A mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 1200.

    What is the name of the hybrid orbitals formed by combining the 2s and one 2p orbital? ›

    If we combine the 2s orbital with the 2px orbital (and leave the 2py and 2pz orbitals untouched) we get two sp orbitals (Figure 1.30). The two valence orbitals combine mathematically to form two equivalent hybrid orbitals, which are named sp orbitals because they are formed from mixing one s and one p orbitals.

    What does 2s 2p mean in chemistry? ›

    That means that the 2s orbital will fill with electrons before the 2p orbitals. All the 2p orbitals have exactly the same energy. Example 1: The electronic structure of hydrogen. Hydrogen only has one electron and that will go into the orbital with the lowest energy - the 1s orbital.

    What is 2s 2p in chemistry? ›

    1s 2s 2p 3s 3p are the electronic orbitals' energy levels.

    What is the shape of BF2? ›

    BF2 molecule has a trigonal planar geometry.

    What is d2 sp3 hybridization? ›

    d2sp3 hybridization is the mixing of s and p atomic orbitals of the same electron shell with d orbitals of another electron shell to form d2spp3 hybrid orbitals. This hybridization results in six hybrid orbitals.

    What does d2 sp3 hybridization lead to? ›

    d2sp3 and sp3d2 hybridisation leads to octahedral geometry.

    How do you know if it's sp2 or sp3? ›

    In general, an atom with all single bonds is an sp3 hybridized. The best example is the alkanes. All the carbon atoms in an alkane are sp3 hybridized with tetrahedral geometry. The carbons in alkenes and other atoms with a double bond are often sp2 hybridized and have trigonal planar geometry.

    How many sp2 sp2 bonds are there? ›

    Thus, the correct answer is 4.

    What happens when 2s orbitals combine? ›

    The 2s orbitals combine primarily with each other to form another pair of bonding and antibonding orbitals at a higher energy. Figure 2 (below) shows how bonding and antibonding σ orbitals can be formed by combining s orbitals in-phase (bonding, bottom) and out-of-phase (antibonding, top).

    How many new hybrid orbitals are formed when hybridize a 2s and two 2p orbitals? ›

    By hybridizing its 2s and 2p orbitals, it can form four sp3 hybridized orbitals that are equal in energy.

    What is one 2s orbital and two 2p orbitals? ›

    When two or more atomic orbitals combine like one 2s and two 2p orbitals combine, the formation of three sp2 s p 2 hybridized orbitals occurs. They are having a trigonal planner geometry and consist of one s and two p orbitals. There are three orbitals formed, having trigonal planer geometry.

    How many electrons does 2s 2p have? ›

    The 2s subshell holds a maximum of 2 electrons, and the 2p subshell holds a maximum of 6 electrons.

    Are 2s and 2p orbitals degenerate? ›

    The 2s and 2p orbitals have the same energy for hydrogen. They are said to be degenerate energy levels, all the same.

    Is 2s 2p in hydrogen? ›

    In the hydrogen atom, all the orbitals in a given principal quantum level have the same energy. Therefore, both 2s and 2p orbitals in the hydrogen atom (H) have the same energy.

    Is 2s and 2p equal in energy? ›

    In atoms with more than one electron, 2s is lower in energy than 2p. An electron in a 2s orbital is less well shielded by the other electrons than an electron in a 2p orbital. (Equivalently, the 2s orbital is more penetrating.) The 2s electron experiences a higher nuclear charge and drops to lower energy.

    Which quantum number is 2 2s and 2p orbitals have in common? ›

    the quantum numbers 2s and 2p have in common is 'n' (principal quantum number).

    What is 2 in 2p orbital? ›

    In 2p - orbital, 2 denotes principal quantum number (n) and p denotes azimuthal quantum number (l=1)

    How many bond pairs are in BF2? ›

    Answer and Explanation: The bond angle between F-B-F in the boron fluoride ion approximately is 120∘ . The boron forms two bonds and it has one lone pair.

    What era is BF2? ›

    The story takes place in the early 21st century during a fictional world war between various power blocs: China, the European Union, the fictional Middle Eastern Coalition (MEC), Russia and the United States.

    What is the bond angle of BF2+? ›

    The bond angle derived from the hybridization is 112°.

    What is the difference between d2 sp3 and sp3 d2? ›

    The key difference between sp3d2 and d2sp3hybridization is that, sp3d2 hybridization involves atomic orbitals of same electron shell whereas d2sp3 hybridization involves atomic orbitals of two electron shells.

    What is the shape of d2 sp3? ›

    A complex involving d2sp3− hybridization have octahedral geometry.

    What is the bond angle of sp3 d2? ›

    In sp3d2 hybridization, octahedral shape of the molecule is observed, which gives a bond angle of 900.

    What shapes are associated with sp3 D and sp3 D 2 hybrid orbitals? ›

    (i) sp3d – Trigonal bipyramidal. (ii) sp3d2 – octahedral.

    Which atomic orbitals involve in d2 sp3 hybridization? ›

    In octahedron, bonds are formed along three mutually perpendicular directions (like coordinate axes x, y and z). Hence, dz2 and dx2−y2 are involved to form hybrid orbitals due to their alignment along axes similar to p-subshell orbitals. Q.

    Which of the following complex species involves d2 sp3 hybridization? ›

    [Ni(NH3)6]2+, [CoF6]3−, and [FeF6]3− involve sp3d2 hybridization, while [Co(NH3)6]3+ involves d2sp3 hybridization.

    Which atoms are sp2 hybridized? ›

    The oxygen and carbon atoms are both sp2 hybridized. The carbon has three sp2 hybridized orbitals and can form three σ bonds, one of which is to the oxygen. The oxygen has one sp2 orbital which is used in the σ bond with carbon.

    How do you identify sp3 bonds? ›

    Count the number of lone pairs + the number of atoms that are directly attached to the central atom. This is the steric number (SN) of the central atom. For example, the O atom in water (H₂O) has 2 lone pairs and 2 directly attached atoms. ∴ SN = 2 + 2 = 4, and hybridization is sp³.

    Is sp2 or sp3 at double bonds? ›

    That big take away is that single bonds use sp3, double bonds use sp2.

    How many sp2 hybrid orbitals are in carbon? ›

    Each carbon has 3 σ-bonds and 1 π-bond. 3 σ-bonds means that there are 3 sp2 hybrid orbitals for each carbon. Hence, the total number of sp2 hybrid orbitals is 18.

    How many bonds are in sp2 and sp3? ›

    In ethene molecules, $s{p^2}$ hybridization is seen where three sigma bonds are present around one carbon and one pi bond is present around one carbon atom. The methane molecule shows $s{p^3}$ hybridization where four sigma bonds are present around one carbon and no pi bond present.

    Is sp2 only double bonds? ›

    sp2 Hybridization

    A carbon atom is sp2 hybridized when bonding takes place between 1 s-orbital with two p orbitals. There is a formation of two single bonds and one double bond between three atoms.

    How many hybrid orbitals are in sp3? ›

    The term “sp3 hybridization” refers to the mixing character of one 2s-orbital and three 2p-orbitals to create four hybrid orbitals with similar characteristics.

    How many orbitals can 2s hold? ›

    Any orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spin. The first shell has one 1s orbital and holds 2 electrons. The second shell holds 8 electrons; 2 in a 2s orbital and 6 in three 2p orbitals.

    How many orbitals are in a 2s? ›

    There is only one orbital in the 2s subshell.

    Can two 2 electrons fit in an orbital? ›

    Each orbital can hold no more than two electrons. Two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins (the Pauli exclusion principle).

    How do you calculate hybrid orbitals? ›

    Number of Hybrid Orbital = number of "Carbons" × (number denoting the hybridisation of carbon) and. Number of Pure Orbital = number of Hydrogens present +2× (no of π-orbitals present)

    What hybrid does a 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals make up? ›

    Thus the orbitals that point the correct directions are made by combining the 2s and all three of the 2p orbitals. This kind of hybrid is called an sp3 hybrid orbital and is the kind of hybridization seen in molecules of tetrahedral geometry.

    What can overlapping of 2 hybrid orbitals lead to the formation of? ›

    The hybrid orbitals overlap to form σ bonds, while the p orbitals on each carbon atom overlap to form a π bond.

    What does 1s 2s 2p mean? ›

    1s will be filled first, with the maximum of 2 electrons. 2s will be filled next, with the maximum of 2 electrons. 2p will be filled next, with the maximum of 6 electrons.

    What is 2s 2p subshell? ›

    The 2s subshell holds a maximum of 2 electrons, and the 2p subshell holds a maximum of 6 electrons. Because lithium's final electron goes into the 2s subshell, we write the electron configuration of a lithium atom as 1s22s1. The shell diagram for a lithium atom is shown below.

    What hybridization in carbon came from its 2s and 2p orbitals? ›

    In an sp-hybridized carbon, the 2s orbital combines with the 2px orbital to form two sp hybrid orbitals that are oriented at an angle of 180°with respect to each other (eg. along the x axis). The 2py and 2pz orbitals remain unhybridized, and are oriented perpendicularly along the y and z axes, respectively.

    How do you tell if a carbon is sp2 or sp3? ›

    In general, an atom with all single bonds is an sp3 hybridized. The best example is the alkanes. All the carbon atoms in an alkane are sp3 hybridized with tetrahedral geometry. The carbons in alkenes and other atoms with a double bond are often sp2 hybridized and have trigonal planar geometry.

    What is the hybridization of an oxygen with 2 bonds 2 lone pairs? ›

    The geometry around oxygen in O2 is trigonal planar because of the two lone pairs on each oxygen and the double bond in between and therefore, the hybridization is sp2.

    How do you determine hybridization? ›

    An easy way to figure out what hybridization an atom has is to just count the number of atoms bonded to it and the number of lone pairs. Double and triple bonds still count as being only bonded to one atom.

    Are 2s and 2p orbitals degenerate in carbon? ›

    The 2s and 2p orbitals have the same energy for hydrogen. They are said to be degenerate energy levels, all the same.

    How many sp2 hybrid orbitals are on the carbon atom in CO 2? ›

    Now, these sp hybridized orbitals of the carbon atom overlap with two p orbitals of the oxygen atoms to form 2 sigma bonds. As for the two remaining p electrons they will be used to form a pi bond. In carbon dioxide molecule, oxygen also hybridizes its orbitals to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals.

    What is sp2 and sp3 hybridization? ›

    A mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 1200. Example of sp2 hybridized is: Ethylene (C2H4) sp3 Hybridization. This type involves mixing of one 's' orbital and three 'p' orbital's of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp3.

    Why is it sp2 and not sp3? ›

    The nitrogen does have a lone pair that can participate in resonance, so the nitrogen is sp2 hybridized, not sp3. The oxygen does have a lone pair that can participate in resonance, so the oxygen is sp2 hybridized, not sp3.

    Which carbon is sp2? ›

    A carbon atom bound to three atoms (two single bonds, one double bond) is sp2 hybridized and forms a flat trigonal or triangular arrangement with 120° angles between bonds.

    What is a molecule with 2 lone pair 2 bond pair? ›

    If there are two bond pairs and two lone pairs of electrons the molecular geometry is angular or bent (e.g. H2O).

    Is oxygen a Sp2 or sp3? ›

    Oxygen has two half-filled sp3 orbitals and can form two bonds which are angled with respect to each other. Chlorine has a single half-filled sp3 orbital and can only form a single bond. All the bonds which are formed are σ bonds.

    Is double bonded oxygen Sp2 or sp3? ›

    That big take away is that single bonds use sp3, double bonds use sp2.

    What are the 3 rules of hybridization? ›

    The following are the rules related to hybridisation: Orbitals of only a central atom would undergo hybridisation. The orbitals of almost the same energy level combine to form hybrid orbitals. The numbers of atomic orbitals mixed together are always equal to the number of hybrid orbitals.

    What is hybridization for dummies? ›

    Hybridization is the idea that atomic orbitals fuse to form newly hybridized orbitals, which in turn, influences molecular geometry and bonding properties. Hybridization is also an expansion of the valence bond theory.

    How do you determine the number of hybrid orbitals? ›

    Number of Hybrid Orbital = number of "Carbons" × (number denoting the hybridisation of carbon) and. Number of Pure Orbital = number of Hydrogens present +2× (no of π-orbitals present)


    1. 14.2 Hybridsation (HL)
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    2. 2.2/S1.3.4 Draw the shapes of s, px, py and pz orbitals [SL IB Chemistry]
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    3. Quantum Numbers, Atomic Orbitals, and Electron Configurations
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    4. Methane MOs by LCAO (2.2)
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    5. Calculation of Coefficients of wave functions of atomic orbitals in different hybrid orbitals|Part 8
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    6. Hybridization of HCN
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